"Corpsman Up"
U.S. Navy Hospital Corps

Although corpsmen go back to the very beginning of the Navy, it isn't until June 1898 that the Hospital Corps is officially established. 
In 1814, Navy Regulations mention a "loblolly boy" who is to serve the surgeon and the surgeon's mate.  The loblolly boy prepares for battle by filling containers with water to hold amputated limbs.  In addition, his duties call for maintaining the braziers of charcoal to heat the tar which is used to stop the hemorrhaging from amputations.   Keeping the deck safe for the surgeon around the operating area is a duty during battle.  The deck, slippery with blood, is treated with buckets of sand.  Sounds gruesome, but cannon balls and cutlasses are not tidy weapons and amputation is the standard treatment for compound fractures. 
The "surgeon's steward" replaces the loblolly boy.  Recognizing the need for additional trained help, surgeons select promising young men for training in elementary medical procedures.  More than a clean up person, this specialist is probably the true forerunner of today's corpsman.
When Congress establishes the Hospital Corps, the Secretary of the Navy appoints 25 senior "apothecaries" as Pharmacists Mate (PhM).  These 25 are the charter members of the Hospital Corps.  A second rating Hospital Apprentice is also established with but three levels Hospital Apprentice (non-rate), Hospital Apprentice First Class (equal to petty officer third class) and Hospital Steward (Chief Petty Officer).  In 1916 the Hospital Apprentice rating is realigned to conform to standard rating structure with three petty officer levels.  The Hospital Corpsman rating is established in 1947.
Some corpsman are selected to enter "Field Medicine" meaning they are assigned duties as corpsman with the U. S. Marine Corps.  Although there are many good natured put downs between the Navy and Marines serving side by side, Marines take special care of their corpsman.  The individual Marine knows that "Doc" will respond, no matter how deadly the situation, when the call  "Corpsman Up!" sounds.
Twenty-two Navy corpsman are recipients of the Medal of Honor, America's highest decoration, for extreme heroism.  Many are awarded posthumously. 


Pre-World War I
Hospital Apprentice Robert H. Stanley, USN (Boxer Rebellion)
Hospital Apprentice First Class William Zuiderveld, USN (Veracruz Incursion)
Hospital Apprentice Fred H. McGuire, USN (Philippine Insurrection)
Hospital Steward William S. Shacklette, USN (Boiler Explosion in San Diego)
World War I
Pharmacist's Mate First Class John H. Balch, USN (Belleau Wood)
Hospital Apprentice First Class David E. Hayden, USN (Saint-Mihiel)
World War II
Hospital Apprentice First Class Robert Eugene Bush, USN (Okinawa)
Pharmacist's Mate 2nd Class William D. Halyburton, Jr., USNR (Okinawa)
Hospital Apprentice First Class Fred F. Lester, USN (Okinawa)
Pharmacist's Mate First Class Francis J. Pierce, USN (Iwo Jima)
Pharmacist's Mate Second Class George E. Wahlen, USN (Iwo Jima)
Pharmacist's Mate Third Class Jack Williams, USN (Iwo Jima)
Pharmacist's Mate First Class John H. Willis, USN (Iwo Jima)
Korean War
Hospital Corpsman Third Class Edward C. Benfold, USN
Hospital Corpsman Third Class William R. Charette, USN
Hospitalman Richard D. Dewert, USN
Hospitalman Francis C. Hammond, USN
Hospitalman John E. Kilmer, USN
Vietnam War
Hospital Corpsman Second Class Donald E. Ballard, USN
Hospital Corpsman Third Class Wayne M. Caron, USN
Hospital Corpsman Third Class Robert R. Ingram, USN
Hospital Corpsman Second Class David R. Ray, USN
In addition, Navy Pharmacist's Mate John Bradley is one of the men who raise the flag over Mt. Suribachi on Iwo Jima, a moment made famous by the Joe Rosenthal photograph

Well done!